A new bacterial disease affecting primarily pond reared fingerling I. punctatus , is described from 17 instances reported from June 1976 through December 1978. Terramycin medicated feed controlled the disease when early diagnosis was possible. Terramycin resistant strains were not detected. The causitive organism was confirmed as a previously unidentified species of Edwardsiella . The disease is referred to as Enteric Septicemia of Catfish (ESC). Optimum growth temperature is between 25 and 30 C; this correlated with pond water temperatures during instances of mortality on fish farms. Koch s postulates were fulfilled using channel catfish fingerlings in 40-l aquaria.