This paper reports a first identification of the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD), Renibacterium salmoninarum, in cultured Black Sea salmon (Salmo trutta labrax) in Turkey. Although it was previously claimed that R. salmoninarum was isolated in 1977 (Halici et al., 1977), Bayindir Dam, Ankara, it appears to be a misidentification of a gram positive bacteria, because some of the biochemical characteristics used for identification does not fit those of R. salmoninarum (Plumb, 1999). Moribund fish were tested for parasites and viruses (VHSV, IPNV and IHNV). Mixed colonies of R. salmoninarum with Yersinia ruckeri were obtained on KDM2 medium. Then Gram positive and gram-negative colonies were subcultured on KDM2 and tryptic soy agar medium, respectively. Renibacterium salmoninarum and Y. ruckeri were isolated from 28% (14/50) and 14% (7/50) of the fish, respectively. All 14 R. salmoninarum isolates were positive in indirect fluorescent antibody test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR procedure amplified a 501 base pair DNA fragment from kidney of 28% fish.