Some of the major disease problems affecting cultured shrimp (Penaeus monodon, the major species and P. indicus) in India are presented. In hatcheries, mortalities due to Vibrio infection are common. A high incidence of occlusion bodies indicative of monodon baculovirus (MBV) has been found in larvae obtained from various hatcheries. However, mortalities due to MBV infections are observed occasionally. In the grow-out systems, white spot syndrome is the major problem causing serious mortalities. Parasitic diseases are a problem in badly managed ponds and in shrimp infected by viruses.