The occurrence of typical and atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection on Swedish fish farms was surveyed, and the methods for controlling the disease are described. This review is based on data for a period of 36 years from fish health control studies conducted by the National Veterinary Institute and the Salmon Research Institute. The epizootiology and routes of transmission of the pathogens are described, and policy and method for disease control are discussed. Although subclinical carriers of typical A. salmonicida occurred among Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss on fish farms, acute disease outbreaks were most frequent among Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus and brown trout Salmo trutta. On the other hand, acute outbreaks of typical A. salmonicida infections were frequent among Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout.