Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is a viral disease of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar that have been exposed to seawater in fish farms or hatcheries. This disease was previously believed to be exclusively one of salmon. However, it has been shown that anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta may carry the ISA virus (ISAV). Propagation of the ISAV in brown trout without the trout's showing any gross clinical signs of disease could be a result of a longstanding host-pathogen relationship between the virus and brown trout. A brown trout population isolated from the sea during the last 5,000 years and expected to be naive to the virus was challenged. These fish did not develop any gross signs of disease, but a few ISAVs were present as late as 46 d postchallenge. It was also shown that the ISA virus was present in brown trout as late as 7 months after challenge.