In the last decade betanodavirus infections have emerged as major constraints on the culture of marine fish in all parts of the world with the exception of the African continent. The occurrence of these infections appears to be a function of the number of species cultured and the intensity of culture. This has been further complicated by the promiscuous translocation of stock within and between countries. Great strides have been made in defining these agents and producing diagnostic techniques but much more remains to be done. Lack of knowledge of the epidemiology of the diseases caused by nodaviruses, except for vertical transmission of the pathogen in some species, has impeded the development of control measures but, even so, the measures identified to date have not been adequately implemented by producers with the result that catastrophic losses still occur on a regular basis.