Disease data

Infection with ranavirus

OIE listed diseases
Amphibians
Viral disease; Ranavirus; Ranavirus

Summary from the online OIE Diagnostic Manual

The most common presentation is an explosive mortality event with death due to peracute systemic haemorrhagic disease. In these cases, usually there are no external lesions. Skin vesicles have been reported with ATV infection in tiger salamanders( Ambystoma tigrinum ). A chronic ranavirus disease, characterised by skin ulceration and necrosis of the distal limbs, has been reported from the United Kingdom.

In haematoxylin and eosin stained sections of skin, epithelial hyperplasia with disruption of the normal stratified architecture of the epidermis and often with necrosis of the deeper epithelial layers has been reported. Multiple foci of necrosis can be found in tissues, but these are rare in cases of the skin ulcerative form of disease. These necrotic foci are most obvious in the renal and splenic haematopoietic tissue and in the liver. Intracytoplasmic virus inclusions have been reported in a variety of tissues, most obviously in hepatocytes.

Infection has been demonstrated in all major tissues except for striated (skeletal) muscle, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. However, virus can be isolated from skeletal muscle, probably from blood in tissues.

Countries affected

Country Year Status View Records
Albania 2012 Pathogen detected, no clinical disease. View Records
Americas 2007 Disease exists; distribution and occurrence unknown View Records
Australia 2008 Enzootic in certain regions View Records
Canada 2013 Suspected but not confirmed View Records
China (Peoples Rep. of) 2008 Disease exists; distribution and occurrence unknown View Records
Denmark 2012 Reported present or known to be present View Records
France 2014 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Italy 2020 Reported in country for the first time View Records
Japan 2013 Serological evidence and/or isolation of causative agent, no clinical disease View Records
Malaysia 2013 Suspected but not confirmed View Records
Netherlands 2013 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Taipei China 2014 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Thailand 2012 Occurrence limited to certain zones View Records
UK/ Great Britain 2008 Enzootic in certain regions View Records
United Kingdom 2012 Reported present or known to be present View Records
United States of America 2013 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Uruguay 2013 Suspected but not confirmed View Records
Venezuela 2008 Enzootic in certain regions View Records

Species affected

Species Disease occurence Abstract
Bufo spp. Natural occurrence Infection with ranavirus
Caecilian spp. Natural occurrence Infection with ranavirus
Rana catesbeiana Unknown Infection with ranavirus, Chinese Taipei (Immediate notification, 10/04/14)
Rana spp. Natural occurrence Infection with ranavirus
Rana sylvatica Experimental demonstration Ranavirus in Wood Frogs (Rana Sylvatica): potential sources of transmission within and between ponds.
Rana temporaria Natural occurrence Infection with ranavirus, Italy [Immediate notification 30/07/2020]

Countries affected

Country Year Status View Records
Argentina 2006 First detection in this host View Records
Australia 2017 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Belgium 2012 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Brazil 2020 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Canada 2019 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Chile 2016 Reported in country for the first time View Records
China (Peoples Rep. of) 2018 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Costa Rica 2012 Reported in country for the first time View Records
France 2019 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Hong Kong 2014 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Hungary 2016 Reported present or known to be present View Records
India 2017 Reported in country for the first time View Records
Korea, Republic of 2017 Reported in country for the first time View Records
Mexico 2019 Reported in country for the first time View Records
Netherlands 2018 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Peru 2016 Reported in country for the first time View Records
Poland 2015 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Portugal 2017 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Russian Federation 2014 Reported present in specific zones View Records
Spain 2010 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Thailand 2017 Reported present or known to be present View Records
United Kingdom 2019 Reported present or known to be present View Records
United States of America 2019 Reported present or known to be present View Records

Species affected

Species Disease occurence Abstract
Ambystoma californiense Experimental demonstration Susceptibility of the Endangered California Tiger Salamander, Ambystoma Californiense, to Ranavirus Infection.
Andrias davidianus Natural occurrence First report of a Ranavirus associated with morbidity and mortality in farmed Chinese giant salamanders (Andrias davidianus).
Atelognathus patagonicus Natural occurrence First case of ranavirus-associated morbidity and mortality in natural populations of the South American frog Atelognathus patagonicus.
Bufo spp. Experimental demonstration Ranavirus could facilitate local extinction of rare amphibian species
Bufo spp. Unknown Impact of asynchronous emergence of two lethal pathogens on amphibian assemblages
Chelydra serpentina Natural occurrence First report of ranavirus mortality in a common snapping turtle Chelydra serpentina
Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis Natural occurrence Prevalence of infection by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and ranavirus in Eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) in Eastern Tennessee.
Litoria caerulea Natural occurrence Isolation and characterisation of a novel Bohle-like virus from two frog species in the Darwin rural area, Australia.
Litoria splendida Natural occurrence Isolation and characterisation of a novel Bohle-like virus from two frog species in the Darwin rural area, Australia.
Pseudacris clarkii Natural occurrence A new ranavirus isolated from Pseudacris clarkii tadpoles in playa wetlands in the southern High Plains, Texas.
Rana catesbeiana Experimental demonstration Detection and molecular characterization of Frog virus 3 in bullfrogs from frog farms in Brazil
Rana catesbeiana Experimental demonstration Genome analysis of Ranavirus frog virus 3 isolated from American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) in South America
Rana catesbeiana Natural occurrence Discovery of Wild Amphibians Infected with Ranavirus in Brazil
Rana catesbeiana Natural occurrence Ranavirus infection dynamics and shedding in American bullfrogs: consequences for spread and detection in trade
Rana catesbeiana Natural occurrence Pathogen risk analysis for wild amphibian populations following the first report of a Ranavirus outbreak in farmed American Bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) from Northern Mexico
Rana pipiens Natural occurrence Five amphibian mortality events associated with ranavirus infection in south central Ontario, Canada.
Rana spp. Experimental demonstration Ranavirus could facilitate local extinction of rare amphibian species
Rana spp. Experimental demonstration Identification and differential expression analysis of MicroRNAs encoded by Tiger Frog Virus in cross-species infection in vitro.
Rana spp. Experimental demonstration Xenopus-FV3 host-pathogen interactions and immune evasion
Rana spp. Experimental demonstration Environmental Drivers of Ranavirus in Free-Living Amphibians in Constructed Ponds
Rana spp. Experimental demonstration Seasonal dynamics and potential drivers of ranavirus epidemics in wood frog populations
Rana spp. Experimental demonstration Co-exposure to multiple ranavirus types enhances viral inefectivity and replication in a larval amphibian system
Rana spp. Natural occurrence Cryptic diversity and ranavirus infection of a critically endangered Neotropical frog before and after population collapse
Rana spp. Natural occurrence Frog Virus 3 Genomes Reveal Prevalent Recombination between Ranavirus Lineages and Their Origins in Canada
Rana spp. Natural occurrence Pathogen Dynamics in an Invasive Frog Compared to Native Species
Rana spp. Natural occurrence Survey of Ranavirus and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Introduced Frogs in Hawaii, USA
Rana spp. Natural occurrence State-wide survey of amphibian pathogens in green frog (lithobates clamitans melanota) reveals high chytrid infection intensities in constructed wetlands
Rana spp. Unknown An emerging viral pathogen truncates population age structure in a European amphibian and may reduce population viability
Rana sylvatica Experimental demonstration Pathogenesis of Frog Virus 3 (Ranavirus, Iridoviridae) Infection in Wood Frogs (Rana sylvatica)
Rana sylvatica Natural occurrence Five amphibian mortality events associated with ranavirus infection in south central Ontario, Canada.
Rana temporaria Experimental demonstration Diversity-Stability Dynamics of the Amphibian Skin Microbiome and Susceptibility to a Lethal Viral Pathogen
Rana temporaria Experimental demonstration Outbreaks of an Emerging Viral Disease Covary With Differences in the Composition of the Skin Microbiome of a Wild United Kingdom Amphibian
Rana temporaria Experimental demonstration Modelling Ranavirus Transmission in Populations of Common Frogs (Rana temporaria) in the United Kingdom
Rana temporaria Natural occurrence eDNA Increases the Detectability of Ranavirus Infection in an Alpine Amphibian Population
Salamander spp. Experimental demonstration MicroRNA repertoire and comparative analysis of Andrias davidianus infected with ranavirus using deep sequencing
Scortum barcoo Experimental demonstration Outbreaks of ulcerative disease associated with ranavirus infection in barcoo grunter, Scortum barcoo (McCulloch & Waite)
Scortum barcoo Natural occurrence Outbreaks of ulcerative disease associated with ranavirus infection in barcoo grunter, Scortum barcoo (McCulloch & Waite)
Terrapene carolina carolina Experimental demonstration A Severe Ranavirus Outbreak in Captive, Wild-Caught Box Turtles
Terrapene carolina carolina Experimental demonstration Detection of ranavirus using bone marrow harvested from mortality events in eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina)
Terrapene carolina carolina Natural occurrence PCR prevalence of ranavirus in free-ranging eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) at rehabilitation centers in three Southeastern US States.
Trioceros melleri Unknown Fatal Ranavirus Infection In A Group Of Zoo-Housed Meller's Chameleons (Trioceros Melleri)
Unknown species Experimental demonstration From fish to frogs and beyond: Impact and host range of emergent ranaviruses
Unknown species Unknown Evaluating the Importance of Environmental Persistence for Ranavirus Transmission and Epidemiology
Unknown species Unknown Low intraspecific variation of Frog virus 3 with evidence for novel FV3-like isolates in central and northwestern Canada
Various Experimental demonstration Transmission of Ranavirus between Ectothermic Vertebrate Hosts
Various Experimental demonstration Characterization of a virulent ranavirus isolated from marine ornamental fish in India
Various Experimental demonstration The pathogenicity and biological features of Santee-Cooper Ranaviruses isolated from Chinese perch and snakehead fish
Various Experimental demonstration The influence of landscape and environmental factors on ranavirus epidemiology in a California amphibian assemblage
Various Experimental demonstration EXPERIMENTAL TRANSMISSION OF FROG VIRUS 3-LIKE RANAVIRUS IN JUVENILE CHELONIANS AT TWO TEMPERATURES.
Various Natural occurrence Concurrent Infection of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Ranavirus among Native Amphibians from Northeastern Oklahoma, USA
Various Natural occurrence Multi-tool diagnosis of an outbreak of ranavirosis in amphibian tadpoles in the Canadian boreal forest
Various Unknown Detection of Ranavirus infection in cultivated carps of Northeast India
Various Unknown Detection and reporting of ranavirus in amphibians: Evaluation of the roles of the world organisation for animal health and the published literature
Various Unknown Prevalence And Distribution Of Ranavirus In Amphibians From Southeastern Oklahoma, Usa
Various Vector Ranaviruses and reptiles

Countries affected

Country Year Status View Records
Albania 2012 Pathogen detected, no clinical disease. View Records
Americas 2007 Disease exists; distribution and occurrence unknown View Records
Argentina 2006 First detection in this host View Records
Australia 2017 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Belgium 2012 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Brazil 2020 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Canada 2019 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Chile 2016 Reported in country for the first time View Records
China (Peoples Rep. of) 2018 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Costa Rica 2012 Reported in country for the first time View Records
Denmark 2012 Reported present or known to be present View Records
France 2019 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Hong Kong 2014 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Hungary 2016 Reported present or known to be present View Records
India 2017 Reported in country for the first time View Records
Italy 2020 Reported in country for the first time View Records
Japan 2013 Serological evidence and/or isolation of causative agent, no clinical disease View Records
Korea, Republic of 2017 Reported in country for the first time View Records
Malaysia 2013 Suspected but not confirmed View Records
Mexico 2019 Reported in country for the first time View Records
Netherlands 2018 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Peru 2016 Reported in country for the first time View Records
Poland 2015 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Portugal 2017 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Russian Federation 2014 Reported present in specific zones View Records
Spain 2010 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Taipei China 2014 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Thailand 2017 Reported present or known to be present View Records
UK/ Great Britain 2008 Enzootic in certain regions View Records
United Kingdom 2019 Reported present or known to be present View Records
United States of America 2019 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Uruguay 2013 Suspected but not confirmed View Records
Venezuela 2008 Enzootic in certain regions View Records

Species affected

Species Disease occurence Abstract
Ambystoma californiense Experimental demonstration Susceptibility of the Endangered California Tiger Salamander, Ambystoma Californiense, to Ranavirus Infection.
Andrias davidianus Natural occurrence First report of a Ranavirus associated with morbidity and mortality in farmed Chinese giant salamanders (Andrias davidianus).
Atelognathus patagonicus Natural occurrence First case of ranavirus-associated morbidity and mortality in natural populations of the South American frog Atelognathus patagonicus.
Bufo spp. Experimental demonstration Ranavirus could facilitate local extinction of rare amphibian species
Bufo spp. Natural occurrence Infection with ranavirus
Bufo spp. Unknown Impact of asynchronous emergence of two lethal pathogens on amphibian assemblages
Caecilian spp. Natural occurrence Infection with ranavirus
Chelydra serpentina Natural occurrence First report of ranavirus mortality in a common snapping turtle Chelydra serpentina
Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis Natural occurrence Prevalence of infection by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and ranavirus in Eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) in Eastern Tennessee.
Litoria caerulea Natural occurrence Isolation and characterisation of a novel Bohle-like virus from two frog species in the Darwin rural area, Australia.
Litoria splendida Natural occurrence Isolation and characterisation of a novel Bohle-like virus from two frog species in the Darwin rural area, Australia.
Pseudacris clarkii Natural occurrence A new ranavirus isolated from Pseudacris clarkii tadpoles in playa wetlands in the southern High Plains, Texas.
Rana catesbeiana Experimental demonstration Detection and molecular characterization of Frog virus 3 in bullfrogs from frog farms in Brazil
Rana catesbeiana Experimental demonstration Genome analysis of Ranavirus frog virus 3 isolated from American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) in South America
Rana catesbeiana Natural occurrence Discovery of Wild Amphibians Infected with Ranavirus in Brazil
Rana catesbeiana Natural occurrence Ranavirus infection dynamics and shedding in American bullfrogs: consequences for spread and detection in trade
Rana catesbeiana Natural occurrence Pathogen risk analysis for wild amphibian populations following the first report of a Ranavirus outbreak in farmed American Bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) from Northern Mexico
Rana catesbeiana Unknown Infection with ranavirus, Chinese Taipei (Immediate notification, 10/04/14)
Rana pipiens Natural occurrence Five amphibian mortality events associated with ranavirus infection in south central Ontario, Canada.
Rana spp. Experimental demonstration Ranavirus could facilitate local extinction of rare amphibian species
Rana spp. Experimental demonstration Identification and differential expression analysis of MicroRNAs encoded by Tiger Frog Virus in cross-species infection in vitro.
Rana spp. Experimental demonstration Xenopus-FV3 host-pathogen interactions and immune evasion
Rana spp. Experimental demonstration Environmental Drivers of Ranavirus in Free-Living Amphibians in Constructed Ponds
Rana spp. Experimental demonstration Seasonal dynamics and potential drivers of ranavirus epidemics in wood frog populations
Rana spp. Experimental demonstration Co-exposure to multiple ranavirus types enhances viral inefectivity and replication in a larval amphibian system
Rana spp. Natural occurrence Infection with ranavirus
Rana spp. Natural occurrence Cryptic diversity and ranavirus infection of a critically endangered Neotropical frog before and after population collapse
Rana spp. Natural occurrence Frog Virus 3 Genomes Reveal Prevalent Recombination between Ranavirus Lineages and Their Origins in Canada
Rana spp. Natural occurrence Pathogen Dynamics in an Invasive Frog Compared to Native Species
Rana spp. Natural occurrence Survey of Ranavirus and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Introduced Frogs in Hawaii, USA
Rana spp. Natural occurrence State-wide survey of amphibian pathogens in green frog (lithobates clamitans melanota) reveals high chytrid infection intensities in constructed wetlands
Rana spp. Unknown An emerging viral pathogen truncates population age structure in a European amphibian and may reduce population viability
Rana sylvatica Experimental demonstration Ranavirus in Wood Frogs (Rana Sylvatica): potential sources of transmission within and between ponds.
Rana sylvatica Experimental demonstration Pathogenesis of Frog Virus 3 (Ranavirus, Iridoviridae) Infection in Wood Frogs (Rana sylvatica)
Rana sylvatica Natural occurrence Five amphibian mortality events associated with ranavirus infection in south central Ontario, Canada.
Rana temporaria Experimental demonstration Diversity-Stability Dynamics of the Amphibian Skin Microbiome and Susceptibility to a Lethal Viral Pathogen
Rana temporaria Experimental demonstration Outbreaks of an Emerging Viral Disease Covary With Differences in the Composition of the Skin Microbiome of a Wild United Kingdom Amphibian
Rana temporaria Experimental demonstration Modelling Ranavirus Transmission in Populations of Common Frogs (Rana temporaria) in the United Kingdom
Rana temporaria Natural occurrence eDNA Increases the Detectability of Ranavirus Infection in an Alpine Amphibian Population
Rana temporaria Natural occurrence Infection with ranavirus, Italy [Immediate notification 30/07/2020]
Salamander spp. Experimental demonstration MicroRNA repertoire and comparative analysis of Andrias davidianus infected with ranavirus using deep sequencing
Scortum barcoo Experimental demonstration Outbreaks of ulcerative disease associated with ranavirus infection in barcoo grunter, Scortum barcoo (McCulloch & Waite)
Scortum barcoo Natural occurrence Outbreaks of ulcerative disease associated with ranavirus infection in barcoo grunter, Scortum barcoo (McCulloch & Waite)
Terrapene carolina carolina Experimental demonstration A Severe Ranavirus Outbreak in Captive, Wild-Caught Box Turtles
Terrapene carolina carolina Experimental demonstration Detection of ranavirus using bone marrow harvested from mortality events in eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina)
Terrapene carolina carolina Natural occurrence PCR prevalence of ranavirus in free-ranging eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) at rehabilitation centers in three Southeastern US States.
Trioceros melleri Unknown Fatal Ranavirus Infection In A Group Of Zoo-Housed Meller's Chameleons (Trioceros Melleri)
Unknown species Experimental demonstration From fish to frogs and beyond: Impact and host range of emergent ranaviruses
Unknown species Unknown Evaluating the Importance of Environmental Persistence for Ranavirus Transmission and Epidemiology
Unknown species Unknown Low intraspecific variation of Frog virus 3 with evidence for novel FV3-like isolates in central and northwestern Canada
Various Experimental demonstration Transmission of Ranavirus between Ectothermic Vertebrate Hosts
Various Experimental demonstration Characterization of a virulent ranavirus isolated from marine ornamental fish in India
Various Experimental demonstration The pathogenicity and biological features of Santee-Cooper Ranaviruses isolated from Chinese perch and snakehead fish
Various Experimental demonstration The influence of landscape and environmental factors on ranavirus epidemiology in a California amphibian assemblage
Various Experimental demonstration EXPERIMENTAL TRANSMISSION OF FROG VIRUS 3-LIKE RANAVIRUS IN JUVENILE CHELONIANS AT TWO TEMPERATURES.
Various Natural occurrence Concurrent Infection of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Ranavirus among Native Amphibians from Northeastern Oklahoma, USA
Various Natural occurrence Multi-tool diagnosis of an outbreak of ranavirosis in amphibian tadpoles in the Canadian boreal forest
Various Unknown Detection of Ranavirus infection in cultivated carps of Northeast India
Various Unknown Detection and reporting of ranavirus in amphibians: Evaluation of the roles of the world organisation for animal health and the published literature
Various Unknown Prevalence And Distribution Of Ranavirus In Amphibians From Southeastern Oklahoma, Usa
Various Vector Ranaviruses and reptiles