The scientific stock assessments for the 64 principal salmon rivers in England and Wales are prepared, in time to report to the ICES Working Group on North Atlantic salmon (WGNAS), contributing to international stock assessments.
Multi-sea-winter salmon continue to return to rivers. Rod fishing seasons for salmon now open on most rivers, although subject to mandatory catch and release measures.
The eggs develop over the winter in their gravel nests. The time when they hatch depends on the water temperature, with faster development in warmer water. Earliest hatching can happen in late February in the most southerly rivers. Eggs can be susceptible to wash-out if floods occur at this time of year.
Small numbers of large salmon (those that have spent a minimum of 2 winters at sea commonly termed multi-sea-winter salmon) start returning to rivers to commence their upstream migration.
Rod fishing seasons for salmon open on some rivers to take advantage of these early ‘spring’ fish, although subject to mandatory catch and release measures. National Spring Salmon Byelaws were introduced in 1999 to provide additional protection to these early returning fish and remain in force.
Most Atlantic salmon die after spawning. However, a small proportion, mostly females, survive and return downstream as kelts to feed and recover in coastal waters. Some will return to spawn again the next year.
For juvenile salmon in rivers, low water temperatures and reduced food availability mean that growth is slowed until the water starts to warm up again in spring.
Spawning – this month, adult male and female salmon pair up in the headwaters to spawn. The fish undergo marked transformations prior to spawning, becoming coloured and with males often developing distinctive hooked jaws. Males vigorously compete for female partners in the spawning areas.
The female lays the orange eggs in a depression excavated in the river gravels – this is called the redd. She lays about 1100 eggs for every 1 kg she weighs. After fertilisation by the male, the female covers the eggs with gravels to protect them.
This is an ideal month to see adult salmon leaping over waterfalls, weirs and other obstructions as they migrate up rivers to reach their spawning areas.