Disease data

Piscirickettsiosis

Previously listed diseases
Fish
Bacterial disease; Gram negative bacteria; Piscirickettsia salmonis

Summary from the online OIE Diagnostic Manual

Piscirickettsiosis is a disease of salmonids caused by Piscirickettsia salmonis that was first reported in farmed coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). The disease was initially described in 1989 from fish in Chile. Piscirickettsia salmonis is a Gram-negative, highly fastidious, intracellular bacterial pathogen of fish. It is distantly related to the genera Coxiella and Francisella and is grouped with the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria.

The identification of P. salmonis is based on isolation of the causative agent with subsequent testing for characteristics of this intracellular pathogen. Piscirickettsia salmonis occurs in cytoplasmic vacuoles in the host cell. The organism may be distinguished from Chlamydia as it does not possess the characteristic chlamydial developmental cycle, and does not contain the group-specific lipopolysaccharide chlamydial antigen. The identity is confirmed by means of serological tests or polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) .

For a rapid result, the identity of P. salmonis isolated in cell culture or observed in smears from diseased tissue may be confirmed by means of the fluorescent antibody test or immunohistochemical methods with polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies, or by PCR with P.-salmonis -specific primers.

The implementation of hygienic measures and management policy are the only control methods currently available. Antibiotics have been used, but their value is questionable. Intensive efforts are underway by various groups to develop an effective vaccine.

Countries affected

Country Year Status View Records
Canada 2006 Reported present in specific zones View Records
Chile 2006 Reported present in specific zones View Records
Ireland 2006 Reported present in specific zones View Records
Norway 2006 Reported present or known to be present View Records
United Kingdom 2006 Reported present or known to be present View Records
United States of America 2006 Serological evidence and/or isolation of causative agent, no clinical disease View Records

Species affected

Species Disease occurence Abstract
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Oncorhynchus kisutch Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Oncorhynchus kisutch Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1996. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Oncorhynchus kisutch Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Oncorhynchus kisutch Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Oncorhynchus masou Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Oncorhynchus masou Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Oncorhynchus masou Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1994. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1995. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1996. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Salmo salar Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Salmo salar Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1996. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Salmo salar Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Salmo salar Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).

Countries affected

Country Year Status View Records
Chile 1994 Year of first reported occurrence View Records

Species affected

Species Disease occurence Abstract
Oncorhynchus kisutch Natural occurrence Coho salmon syndrome in Chile.
Oncorhynchus kisutch Natural occurrence Isolation of a rickettsiales-like organism from diseased coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in Chile.
Oncorhynchus mykiss Experimental demonstration The isolation of a rickettsia-like organism causing disease and mortality in Chilean salmonids and its confirmation by Koch's psotulate.
Oncorhynchus mykiss x Oncorhynchus kisutch Natural occurrence Piscirickettsiosis in freshwater.
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Experimental demonstration The isolation of a rickettsia-like organism causing disease and mortality in Chilean salmonids and its confirmation by Koch's psotulate.
Salmo salar Experimental demonstration The isolation of a rickettsia-like organism causing disease and mortality in Chilean salmonids and its confirmation by Koch's psotulate.
Salmo salar Natural occurrence A Piscirickettsiosis-like disease in farmed Atlantic salmon in Ireland - isolation of the agent.
Salmo salar Natural occurrence Septicemia suspected to be caused by a rickettsia-like agent in farmed |Atlantic salmon.
Salmo salar Natural occurrence Piscirickettsia salmonis infection in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Norway - epidemiological, pathological and microbiological findings.
Salmo salar Natural occurrence Virulence and antigenic characteristics of a cultured Rickettsiales-like organism isolated from farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in eastern Canada.
Salmo salar Natural occurrence Observation of a rickettsia-like organism in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in Ireland.
Salmonids Experimental demonstration Comparative Pan-Genome Analysis of Piscirickettsia salmonis Reveals Genomic Divergences within Genogroups

Countries affected

Country Year Status View Records
Canada 2006 Reported present in specific zones View Records
Chile 2006 Reported present in specific zones View Records
Ireland 2006 Reported present in specific zones View Records
Norway 2006 Reported present or known to be present View Records
United Kingdom 2006 Reported present or known to be present View Records
United States of America 2006 Serological evidence and/or isolation of causative agent, no clinical disease View Records

Species affected

Species Disease occurence Abstract
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Oncorhynchus kisutch Natural occurrence Coho salmon syndrome in Chile.
Oncorhynchus kisutch Natural occurrence Isolation of a rickettsiales-like organism from diseased coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in Chile.
Oncorhynchus kisutch Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Oncorhynchus kisutch Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1996. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Oncorhynchus kisutch Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Oncorhynchus kisutch Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Oncorhynchus masou Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Oncorhynchus masou Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Oncorhynchus masou Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Oncorhynchus mykiss Experimental demonstration The isolation of a rickettsia-like organism causing disease and mortality in Chilean salmonids and its confirmation by Koch's psotulate.
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1994. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1995. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1996. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Oncorhynchus mykiss x Oncorhynchus kisutch Natural occurrence Piscirickettsiosis in freshwater.
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Experimental demonstration The isolation of a rickettsia-like organism causing disease and mortality in Chilean salmonids and its confirmation by Koch's psotulate.
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Salmo salar Experimental demonstration The isolation of a rickettsia-like organism causing disease and mortality in Chilean salmonids and its confirmation by Koch's psotulate.
Salmo salar Natural occurrence A Piscirickettsiosis-like disease in farmed Atlantic salmon in Ireland - isolation of the agent.
Salmo salar Natural occurrence Septicemia suspected to be caused by a rickettsia-like agent in farmed |Atlantic salmon.
Salmo salar Natural occurrence Piscirickettsia salmonis infection in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Norway - epidemiological, pathological and microbiological findings.
Salmo salar Natural occurrence Virulence and antigenic characteristics of a cultured Rickettsiales-like organism isolated from farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in eastern Canada.
Salmo salar Natural occurrence Observation of a rickettsia-like organism in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in Ireland.
Salmo salar Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Salmo salar Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1996. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Salmo salar Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Salmo salar Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Salmonids Experimental demonstration Comparative Pan-Genome Analysis of Piscirickettsia salmonis Reveals Genomic Divergences within Genogroups