Disease data

Perkinsosis

Previously listed diseases
Molluscs
Protozoan disease; Apicomplexa; Perkinsus spp.

Summary from the online OIE Diagnostic Manual

Perkinsosis here refers only to the diseases caused by Perkinsus marinus and P. olseni/atlanticus. Other described species of Perkinsus include P. chesapeaki from Mya arenaria ( 26 ) , P. andrewsi in Macoma balthica ( 14 ), both from the east coast of the United States of America ( USA ) , and P. qugwadi from Patinopecten yessoensis from western Canada ( 5 ) . These species are not considered at this time to cause diseases notifiable to the OIE. Other unidentified Perkinsus spp. infect many species of bivalves in tropical and subtropical waters ( 22 ). Until more is known about the identity, biology and pathology of these other Perkinsus spp., their presence in any bivalve should be regarded as potentially serious and the OIE Reference Laboratory should be consulted.

Perkinsosis is an infection of marine molluscs caused by protistan parasites of the genus Perkinsus. Recent investigations using molecular sequence data ( 21, 39, 42 ) indicate that Perkinsus is not in the phylum Apicomplexa as suggested by ultrastructural data ( 25 ) , but is closely related to the Dinoflagellida. Some authors have placed Perkinsus in the phylum Perkinsozoa ( 33 ) , or the phylum Dinozoa subphylum Protalveolata ( 12 ), but more molecular data are necessary on Perkinsus and genera related to Perkinsus before phylogenetic relationships will be clear.

Perkinsus marinus causes disease of economic importance in Crassostrea virginica( 2, 7 ) . Although infection of C. gigas and C. ariakensis is possible, these species seem to be more resistant to the disease ( 4, 9, 10 ) . Perkinsus marinus was formerly named Dermocystidium marinum ( 29 ) , and then Labyrinthomyxa marina ( 30 ) . Infection by P. marinus is commonly known as 'Dermo disease' ( 19 ) . Perkinsus marinus is found on the east coast of the USA ( 2, 7 ) from Maine to Florida, and along the Gulf of Mexico coast to the Yucutan Peninsula ( 6 ) . The recent northward range extension of P. marinus into Delaware Bay, New Jersey, Cape Cod and Maine, USA, is attributed to repeated introductions over several years in conjunction with recent increases in winter sea-surface temperatures ( 13, 18 ) . The effects of P. marinus infection in C. virginica range from a pale appearance of the digestive gland and reduction in condition index, to severe emaciation, gaping, retraction of the mantle, inhibition of gonadal development, retarded growth, and death ( 27, 28 ) .

Perkinsus olseni was originally described from Haliotis ruber in Australia ( 24 ) and P. atlanticus was originally described from Ruditapes decussatus in Portugal ( 3 ) . Similarities in the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacers ( ITS ) of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster ( 20 ) have long suggested that P. olseni is conspecific with P. atlanticus. Recently, the synonymy of the two species has been formally established based also on sequence similarities in the rRNA nontranscribed spacer ( NTS ) region ( 32 ) ; Perkinsus olseni has taxonomic priority. Other susceptible hosts for P. olseni/atlanticus include Haliotis cyclobates, H. scalaris , H. laevigata, Anadara trapezia, Austrovenus stutchburyi and Ruditapes philippinarum( 22, 23, 32, 34 ) . The geographical distribution of P. olseni/atlanticus is eastern and southern Australia, New Zealand, Korea, Japan, Portugal, France, Italy and Spain ( 1, 3, 11, 22, 23, 34, 40 ).

Proliferation of P. olseni/atlanticus results in the disruption of connective tissue and epithelial cells leading to weakening. Cysts are visible macroscopically on the gills of infected R. decussatus( 3 ) . Abscesses occasionally can be noted in abalone (Haliotis spp.)( 24 ). Pustules up to 8 mm in diameter in the foot and mantle of infected Haliotis spp. reduce market value. Perkinsus olseni/atlanticus was directly associated with high losses of the abalone H. laevigata in Australia ( 22 ) and mortality in the clam R. decussatus in Portugal ( 3 ) and in the clam R. philippinarum in Korea ( 34 ) .

Morphology of life history stages is similar for all Perkinsus species. Trophozoites, characterised by a large vacuole and a displaced nucleus, occur intercellularly in connective and epithelial tissue. Mature trophozoites divide by successive binary fission resulting in the release of 8-32 immature trophozoites ( 36, 44 ) . The developmental cycle of P. marinus often occurs within phagocytes. Proliferation of all Perkinsus species is correlated with warm summer water temperatures ( higher than 20°C ) when pathogenicity and associated mortalities are highest. All life history stages appear to be infective ( 45 ) . Under certain, poorly understood, conditions mature trophozoites enlarge and undergo zoosporulation. Although biflagellate zoospores are infective, the role of the zoospore in transmission in nature is unclear.

Reference methods for the detection of Perkinsus spp. are histological sections and culture in fluid thioglycollate medium ( 8, 17, 37, 38 ) . For diagnosis, the recommended guidelines for sampling are those stated in Chapter 1.1.4 and Chapter I.2. of this Aquatic Manual .





Countries affected

Country Year Status View Records
Australia 2005 Reported present in specific zones View Records
France 2003 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Italy 2004 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Japan 2003 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Korea, Republic of 2005 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Kuwait 2003 Year of last reported occurrence View Records
New Zealand 2005 Reported present in specific zones View Records
Portugal 2003 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Spain 2005 Reported present in specific zones View Records
Tunisia 2005 Reported present in specific zones View Records
United States of America 2005 Reported present in specific zones View Records

Species affected

Species Disease occurence Abstract
Austrovenus stutchburyi Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 2001. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Austrovenus stutchburyi Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Austrovenus stutchburyi Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 2002. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods. Page 248 (7).
Barbatia novaezelandiae Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 2001. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Barbatia novaezelandiae Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 2002. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods. Page 248 (7).
Crassostrea virginica Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1997. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Crassostrea virginica Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Haliotis cyclobates Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Haliotis cyclobates Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Haliotis laevigata Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Haliotis laevigata Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Haliotis ruber Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Haliotis ruber Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Haliotis scalaris Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Haliotis scalaris Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Haliotis spp. Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 2002. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods. Page 61 (5).
Ruditapes decussatus Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1997. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Ruditapes decussatus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Ruditapes philippinarum Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1997. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Ruditapes philippinarum Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).

Countries affected

Country Year Status View Records
Japan 2019 Year of first reported occurrence View Records
Korea, Republic of 2006 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Tunisia 2012 Reported present or known to be present View Records

Species affected

Species Disease occurence Abstract
Anadara sp. Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Arcidae Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Cardiidae Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Cardium edule Natural occurrence Diseases of Mollusca : Bivalvia.
Chama sp. Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Malleus regula Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Mytilidae Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Mytilus edulis Natural occurrence Diseases of Mollusca : Bivalvia.
Mytilus galloprovincialis Natural occurrence First discovery of Perkinsus beihaiensis in Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in Tokyo Bay, Japan
Ostreidae Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Pectinidae Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Pinnidae Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Pteriidae Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Spondylidae Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Tridacna gigas Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Tridacnidae Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Veneridae Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Veneridae Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus olseni in the Venus clam Protothaca jedoensis in Korean waters.

Countries affected

Country Year Status View Records
Australia 2005 Reported present in specific zones View Records
France 2003 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Italy 2004 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Japan 2019 Year of first reported occurrence View Records
Korea, Republic of 2006 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Kuwait 2003 Year of last reported occurrence View Records
New Zealand 2005 Reported present in specific zones View Records
Portugal 2003 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Spain 2005 Reported present in specific zones View Records
Tunisia 2012 Reported present or known to be present View Records
United States of America 2005 Reported present in specific zones View Records

Species affected

Species Disease occurence Abstract
Anadara sp. Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Arcidae Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Austrovenus stutchburyi Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 2001. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Austrovenus stutchburyi Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Austrovenus stutchburyi Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 2002. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods. Page 248 (7).
Barbatia novaezelandiae Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 2001. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Barbatia novaezelandiae Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 2002. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods. Page 248 (7).
Cardiidae Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Cardium edule Natural occurrence Diseases of Mollusca : Bivalvia.
Chama sp. Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Crassostrea virginica Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1997. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Crassostrea virginica Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Haliotis cyclobates Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Haliotis cyclobates Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Haliotis laevigata Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Haliotis laevigata Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Haliotis ruber Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Haliotis ruber Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Haliotis scalaris Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Haliotis scalaris Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Haliotis spp. Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 2002. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods. Page 61 (5).
Malleus regula Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Mytilidae Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Mytilus edulis Natural occurrence Diseases of Mollusca : Bivalvia.
Mytilus galloprovincialis Natural occurrence First discovery of Perkinsus beihaiensis in Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in Tokyo Bay, Japan
Ostreidae Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Pectinidae Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Pinnidae Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Pteriidae Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Ruditapes decussatus Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1997. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Ruditapes decussatus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Ruditapes philippinarum Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1997. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Ruditapes philippinarum Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Spondylidae Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Tridacna gigas Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Tridacnidae Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Veneridae Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus species (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in bivalves from the Great Barrier Reef.
Veneridae Natural occurrence Occurrence of Perkinsus olseni in the Venus clam Protothaca jedoensis in Korean waters.