Disease data

Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy

Previously listed diseases
Fish
Viral disease; Nodavirus; Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy

Summary from the online OIE Diagnostic Manual

Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy ( VER ), or viral nervous necrosis ( VNN ) has been reported as a serious disease of larval and juvenile and sometimes older marine fish that occurs almost world-wide except for Africa ( 23 ). To date, the disease has been reported in at least 30 fish species, with the greatest impact being in sea bass (Lates calcarifer [ 10 ] and Dicentrarchus labrax [ 2 ]), groupers (Epinephelus akaara [ 22 ], E. fuscogutatus [ 3 ], E. malabaricus [ 6 ], E. moara [ 25 ], E. septemfasciatus [ 9 ], E. tauvina [ 4 ], E. coioides [ 19 ] and Cromileptes altivelis [ 34 ]), jack (Pseudocaranx dentex [ 21 ]), parrotfish (Oplegnathus fasciatus [ 33 ]), puffer (Takifugu rubripes [ 25 ]), and flatfish (Verasper moseri [ 32 ], Hippoglossus hippoglossus [ 11 ], Paralichthys olivaceus [ 26 ], Scophthalmus maximus [ 1 ]).

Virus particles of about 25-30 nm in diameter have been visualised in affected fish, and the agents in striped jack, barramundi, and European sea bass have been characterised and placed in the genus Betanodavirus, family Nodaviridae ( 5, 21 ) . Immunological studies have shown relationships between striped jack nervous necrosis virus ( SJNNV, the type species of the genus Betanodavirus ) and the other betanodaviruses. Genomic classification of betanodaviruses has shown close relationships, with major groupings being SJNNV-type, tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus ( TPNNV ) -type, barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus ( BFNNV ) -type and red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus ( RGNNV ) -type ( 27 ) . Complete nucleotide sequences of RNA1 and RNA2 of SJNNV and GGNNV ( a grouper betanodavirus ) have been reported ( 15, 29 ) .

All diseases are characterised by a variety of neurological abnormalities, such as erratic swimming behaviour ( spiral, whirling or belly-up at rest ) and vacuolation of the central nervous tissues. Usually there is also vacuolation of the nuclear layers of the retina. In general, younger fish have more severe lesions; older fish have less extensive lesions and these may show a predilection for the retina ( 23 ) . Intracytoplasmic inclusions have been described in brain cells of European sea bass, barramundi, Japanese parrotfish, and brownspotted grouper. Neuronal necrosis has been described in most species.

Interesting differences with regard to the occurrence and severity of the diseases are shown in Table 1. There are considerable variations in the age at which disease is first noted and the period over which mortality occurs. In general, the earlier the signs of disease occur, the greater is the rate of mortality. Although disease occurrence at the juvenile stages in some species is very rare, mass mortalities often occur at juvenile to young stages in the other fish species, but usually do not reach 100%, indicating the age-dependence of susceptibility ( 23 ) . Mortalities have been reported in production-size European sea bass ( 18 ) and grouper ( 9 ) , but even in these cases mortalities were greatest in younger fish.

It has been demonstrated that vertical transmission of the causative agent occurs in Pseudocaranx dentex and this fact is reflected by the early occurrence of clinical disease. This finding led to the successful control of VNN of larval striped jack, where elimination of virus-carrying broodstock by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and disinfection of fertilised eggs by ozone were applied ( 20, 24 ) . Paradoxically, ovarian infection has also been reported in Dicentrarchus labrax in which disease is usually not seen until about 30 days post-hatch. The mode of transmission/introduction of the viruses, other than in gametes and by cohabitation, has not been demonstrated, but the possibilities include influent water, juvenile fish held on the same site, and carriage on utensils, vehicles, etc. It is possible that these small viruses are quite resistant to environmental conditions ( 8 ) and therefore readily translocated by commercial activities. Vaccination using a recombinant capsid protein is at the experimental stage ( 14, 30 ) .

Countries affected

Country Year Status View Records
Australia 2013 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Canada 2006 Occurrence limited to certain zones View Records
France 1996 Reported positive year View Records
French Polynesia 2011 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Greece 1996 Reported positive year View Records
Hong Kong 2011 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Indonesia 2013 Occurrence limited to certain zones View Records
Italy 1996 Reported positive year View Records
Japan 2013 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Korea, Republic of 2010 Suspected but not confirmed View Records
Malaysia 2013 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Norway 2006 Year of last reported occurrence View Records
Philippines 2013 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Singapore 2013 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Spain 2006 Suspected but not confirmed View Records
Taipei China 2008 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Taipei China 2012 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Taiwan 1996 Reported positive year View Records
Thailand 2006 Suspected but not confirmed View Records
United States of America 2006 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Vietnam 2009 Reported present or known to be present View Records

Species affected

Species Disease occurence Abstract
Cromileptes altivelis Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Cromileptes altivelis Natural occurrence Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease Report April - June 2003 (Asian and Pacific Region).
Cromileptes altivelis Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Dicentrarchus labrax Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Dicentrarchus labrax Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1994. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Dicentrarchus labrax Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1995. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Dicentrarchus labrax Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1996. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Dicentrarchus labrax Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Dicentrarchus labrax Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Epinephelus akaara Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Epinephelus akaara Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Epinephelus akaara Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Epinephelus coioides Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Epinephelus coioides Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Epinephelus malabaricus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Epinephelus malabaricus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Epinephelus malabaricus Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Epinephelus moara Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Epinephelus moara Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Epinephelus moara Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Epinephelus septemfasciatus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Epinephelus septemfasciatus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Epinephelus septemfasciatus Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Epinephelus spp. Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1995. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Epinephelus tauvina Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Epinephelus tauvina Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Epinephelus tauvina Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Gadus morhua Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 2002. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods. Page 85 (4).
Gadus morhua Unknown World Animal Health in 2001. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1995. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1996. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Lates calcarifer Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Lates calcarifer Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1994. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Lates calcarifer Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Lates calcarifer Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 2003. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and methods for disease control and prevention. Page 64 (2).
Lates calcarifer Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 2004. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods. Page 59 (2).
Lates calcarifer Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Macquaria novemaculeata Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 2004. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods. Page 59 (2).
Melanogrammus aeglefinus Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 2002. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods. Page 85 (4).
Micropterus salmoides Natural occurrence Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy outbreak in freshwater fish farmed in Italy.
Oplegnathus fasciatus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Oplegnathus fasciatus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Oplegnathus fasciatus Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Paralichthys olivaceus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Paralichthys olivaceus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Paralichthys olivaceus Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Pseudocaranx dentex Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Pseudocaranx dentex Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1994. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Pseudocaranx dentex Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Pseudocaranx dentex Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Scophthalmus maximus (Psetta maxima) Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Scophthalmus maximus (Psetta maxima) Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Scophthalmus maximus (Psetta maxima) Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Seriola dumerili Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Sparus aurata Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1996. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Takifugu (Fugu) rubripes Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Takifugu (Fugu) rubripes Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Takifugu (Fugu) rubripes Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Trachinotus blochii Natural occurrence Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease Report April - June 2003 (Asian and Pacific Region).
Verasper moseri Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Verasper moseri Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Verasper moseri Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).

Countries affected

Country Year Status View Records
Australia 1990 Disease exists; distribution and occurrence unknown View Records
Canada 2002 First detection in region View Records
Greece 2007 Reported present or known to be present View Records
India 2013 Pathogen detected for the first time View Records
Indonesia 2002 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Iran 2005 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Israel 2004 Reported in country for the first time View Records
Italy 1999 Year of first reported occurrence View Records
Japan 2009 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Korea, Republic of 2002 Pathogen detected for the first time View Records
Malaysia 2011 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Malta 2001 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Norway 1997 Year of first reported occurrence View Records
Philippines 2004 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Portugal 2007 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Singapore 2002 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Spain 2007 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Taiwan 2001 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Thailand 1995 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Tunisia 2009 Year of first reported occurrence View Records
United Kingdom 2010 First detection in this host View Records

Species affected

Species Disease occurence Abstract
Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Natural occurrence Important disease conditions of newly cultured species in intensive freshwater farms in Greece: first incidence of nodavirus infection in Acipenser sp.
Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Natural occurrence Isolation, characterization, sequencing of nodavirus in sturgeon (Acipenser gueldestaedi L.) reared in freshwater facilities.
Anarhichas minor Experimental demonstration Acute and persistent experimental nodavirus infection in spotted wolffish.
Anguilla anguilla Natural occurrence Genetic and antigenic analysis of betanodaviruses isolated from aquatic organisms in Taiwan.
Anguilla anguilla Natural occurrence Investigation of host range of fish nodavirus in Taiwan.
Atractoscion nobilis Natural occurrence Nodavirus infection of juvenile white seabass, Atractoscion nobilis, cultured in southern California; first record of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in North America.
Cromileptes altivelis Natural occurrence Viral nervous necrosis in humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis larvae and juveniles in Indonesia.
Dicentrarchus labrax Experimental demonstration The encephalopathy and retinopathy virus of european Sea Bass dicentrarchus labrax: Strategies for its detection and immunisation of juveniles
Dicentrarchus labrax Natural occurrence Viral infection (picorna-like virus) associated with mass mortalities in hatchery-reared sea-bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae and juveniles.
Dicentrarchus labrax Natural occurrence Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) associated with mass mortalities in cage reared sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.).
Dicentrarchus labrax Natural occurrence Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy of Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) farmed in fresh water in Greece.
Dicentrarchus labrax Natural occurrence Nodavirus infections in Israeli mariculture.
Dicentrarchus labrax Natural occurrence Emergence of pathogenic betanodaviruses belonging to the SJNNV genogroup in farmed fish species from the Iberian Peninsula.
Dicentrarchus labrax Natural occurrence Cell culture isolation of piscine neuropathy nodavirus from juvenile sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.
Dicentrarchus labrax Natural occurrence Phylogenetic and antigenic characterization of new fish nodavirus isolates from Europe and Asia.
Epinephelus aeneus Natural occurrence Nodavirus infections in Israeli mariculture.
Epinephelus akaara Natural occurrence Mass mortalities associated with viral nervous necrosis in hatchery-reared groupers in the People's Republic of China.
Epinephelus akaara Natural occurrence A viral disease in hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles of redspotted grouper.
Epinephelus akaara Natural occurrence Mass mortalities associated with viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease in two species of hatchery-reared grouper, epinephelus fuscogutatus and Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel)
Epinephelus akaara Natural occurrence Genetic analysis and pathogenicity of betanodavirus isolated from wild redspotted grouper Epinephalus akaara with clinical signs.
Epinephelus coioides Natural occurrence Mass mortalities associated with viral nervous necrosis in hatchery-reared groupers in the People's Republic of China.
Epinephelus coioides Natural occurrence Nodavirus infection in hatchery-reared orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides: first record of viral nervous necrosis in the Philippines.
Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Natural occurrence Mass mortalities associated with viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease in two species of hatchery-reared grouper, epinephelus fuscogutatus and Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel)
Epinephelus malabaricus Natural occurrence Picorna-like vius associated with mortality and a spongious encephalopathy in grouper Epinephelus malabaricus.
Epinephelus malabaricus Natural occurrence Viral nervous necrosis in brownspotted grouper, Epinephelus malabaricus, cultured in Thailland.
Epinephelus marginatus Unknown Betanodavirus infections of teleost fish: a review.
Epinephelus moara Natural occurrence Occurrence of viral nervous necrosis in kelp grouper and tiger puffer.
Epinephelus septemfasciatus Natural occurrence Mass mortality of cultured grouper, Epinephelus septemfasciatus, associated with viral nervous necrosis.
Epinephelus septemfasciatus Natural occurrence Viral diseases of cultured marine fish and shrimp in Korea.
Epinephelus tauvina Natural occurrence Mass mortality in juvenile greasy grouper, Epinephelus tauvina, associated with vacuolating encephalopathy and retinopathy.
Epinephelus tauvina Unknown Betanodavirus infections of teleost fish: a review.
Gadus morhua Natural occurrence Identification and characterization of a piscine neuropathy and nodavirus from juvenile Atlantic cod from the Atlantic coast of North America.
Gadus morhua Natural occurrence Nodavirus infection of Atlantic cod, Dover sole, and halibut in the United Kingdom.
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Experimental demonstration Transmission of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) to yolk-sac larvae of the Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus: occurrence of nodavirus in various organs and a possible route of infection.
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Natural occurrence Mass mortality of larval and juvenile hatchery-reared halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) associated with the presence of virus-like particles in vacuolated lesions in the central nervous system and retina.
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Natural occurrence Vacuolating encephalopathy and retinopathy associated with a nodavirus-like agent: a probable cause of mass mortality of cultured larvall and juvenile Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus.
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Natural occurrence Isolation of nodavirus from Scottish farmed halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus (L.).
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Natural occurrence Nodavirus infection of Atlantic cod, Dover sole, and halibut in the United Kingdom.
Lateolabrax japonicus Natural occurrence Histopathological studies on viral nervous necrosis in a new host, Japanese sea bass Lateolabrax japonicus.
Lates calcarifer Natural occurrence Mass mortality associated with a virl-induced vacuolating encephalopathy and retinopathy of larval and juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifer Bloch.
Lates calcarifer Natural occurrence Mass mortalities in hatchery-reared sea bass (Lates calcarifer) larvae associated with the presence in the brain and retina of virus-like particles.
Lates calcarifer Natural occurrence Nodavirus infection causes mortalities in hatchery produced larvae of Lates calcarifer: first report from India.
Lates calcarifer Natural occurrence Nodavirus infections in Israeli mariculture.
Lates calcarifer Natural occurrence Nodaviruses as pathogens in larval and juvenile marine fish.
Lates calcarifer Natural occurrence Mass mortalities associated with viral nervous necrosis in hatchery-reared sea bass Lates calcarifer in the Philippines.
Lates calcarifer Unknown Betanodavirus infections of teleost fish: a review.
Latris lineata Unknown Betanodavirus infections of teleost fish: a review.
Liza auratus Natural occurrence Mortality of wild golden grey mullet (Liza auratus)in Iranian waters of the Caspian Sea, associated with viral necrosis-like agent
Lutjanus erythropterus Natural occurrence Genetic and antigenic analysis of betanodaviruses isolated from aquatic organisms in Taiwan.
Melanogrammus aeglefinus Natural occurrence First isolation of a piscine nodavirus from wild caught Haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus G. (Gadidae).
Mugil cephalus Natural occurrence Nodavirus infections in Israeli mariculture.
Oplegnathus fasciatus Natural occurrence Viral nervous necrosis in hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles of Japanese parrotfish, Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck and Sclegel).
Oxyeleotris lineolatus Unknown Betanodavirus infections of teleost fish: a review.
Paralichthys olivaceus Natural occurrence Occurrence of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in hatchery-reared juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.
Plectropomus maculatus Unknown Nodavirus associated with pathological changes in adult spotted coralgroupers (Plectropomus maculatus) in Thailand with viral nervous necrosis
Pseudocaranx dentex Natural occurrence Epizootiology of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in striped jack.
Pseudopleuronectes americanus Natural occurrence First report of piscine nodavirus infecting wild winter flounder Pleuronectes americanus in Passamaquoddy Bay, New Brunswick, Canada.
Rachycentron canadum Natural occurrence Genetic and antigenic analysis of betanodaviruses isolated from aquatic organisms in Taiwan.
Rachycentron canadum Natural occurrence Investigation of host range of fish nodavirus in Taiwan.
Salaria fluviatilis (Asso) Unknown Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy outbreak in restocking facilities of the endangered freshwater species, Salaria fluviatilis (Asso).
Sciaenops ocellatus Natural occurrence A fish nodavirus associated with mass mortality in hatchery-reared red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.
Sciaenops ocellatus Natural occurrence Nodavirus infections in Israeli mariculture.
Scophthalmus maximus (Psetta maxima) Natural occurrence Encephalomyelitis among turbot associated with a picorn-like agent.
Seriola dumerili Unknown Viral and bacterial diseases in larval and juvenile marine fish and shellfish: a review.
Silurus asotus Natural occurrence Genetic and antigenic analysis of betanodaviruses isolated from aquatic organisms in Taiwan.
Solea senegalensis Natural occurrence Emergence of pathogenic betanodaviruses belonging to the SJNNV genogroup in farmed fish species from the Iberian Peninsula.
Solea solea Natural occurrence Nodavirus infection of Atlantic cod, Dover sole, and halibut in the United Kingdom.
Sparus aurata Carrier not affected Sea bream Sparus aurata, an asymptomatic contagious fish host for nodavirus
Sparus aurata Experimental demonstration Experimental transmission of encephalopathy and retinopathy induced by nodavirus to sea bream, Sparus aurata L., using different infection models.
Sparus aurata Natural occurrence First incidence of clinical signs of nodavirus infection in sea bream, Sparus auratus L.
Sparus aurata Natural occurrence Emergence of pathogenic betanodaviruses belonging to the SJNNV genogroup in farmed fish species from the Iberian Peninsula.
Stephanolepis cirrhifer Natural occurrence Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in hatchery-reared juvenile thread-sail filefish (Stephanolepis cirrhifer).
Takifugu (Fugu) rubripes Natural occurrence Occurrence of viral nervous necrosis in kelp grouper and tiger puffer.
Trachinotus blochii Natural occurrence Betanodavirus infection in golden pompano, Trachinotus blochii, fingerlings cultured in deep-sea cage culture facility in Langkawi, Malaysia.
Trachinotus falcatus Natural occurrence Genetic and antigenic analysis of betanodaviruses isolated from aquatic organisms in Taiwan.
Trachinotus falcatus Natural occurrence Investigation of host range of fish nodavirus in Taiwan.
Umbrina cirrosa Natural occurrence Casi di Encefaloretinopatia in ombrina (Umbrina cirrosa), con descrizione della sintomatologia clinica e del quadro anatomoistopatologico.
Verasper moseri Natural occurrence Occurrence of viral nervous necrosis in hatchery-reared barfin flounder.

Countries affected

Country Year Status View Records
Australia 2013 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Canada 2006 Occurrence limited to certain zones View Records
France 1996 Reported positive year View Records
French Polynesia 2011 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Greece 2007 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Hong Kong 2011 Reported present or known to be present View Records
India 2013 Pathogen detected for the first time View Records
Indonesia 2013 Occurrence limited to certain zones View Records
Iran 2005 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Israel 2004 Reported in country for the first time View Records
Italy 1999 Year of first reported occurrence View Records
Japan 2013 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Korea, Republic of 2010 Suspected but not confirmed View Records
Malaysia 2011 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Malaysia 2013 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Malta 2001 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Norway 2006 Year of last reported occurrence View Records
Philippines 2013 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Portugal 2007 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Singapore 2013 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Spain 2007 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Taipei China 2008 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Taipei China 2012 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Taiwan 2001 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Thailand 2006 Suspected but not confirmed View Records
Tunisia 2009 Year of first reported occurrence View Records
United Kingdom 2010 First detection in this host View Records
United States of America 2006 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Vietnam 2009 Reported present or known to be present View Records

Species affected

Species Disease occurence Abstract
Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Natural occurrence Important disease conditions of newly cultured species in intensive freshwater farms in Greece: first incidence of nodavirus infection in Acipenser sp.
Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Natural occurrence Isolation, characterization, sequencing of nodavirus in sturgeon (Acipenser gueldestaedi L.) reared in freshwater facilities.
Anarhichas minor Experimental demonstration Acute and persistent experimental nodavirus infection in spotted wolffish.
Anguilla anguilla Natural occurrence Genetic and antigenic analysis of betanodaviruses isolated from aquatic organisms in Taiwan.
Anguilla anguilla Natural occurrence Investigation of host range of fish nodavirus in Taiwan.
Atractoscion nobilis Natural occurrence Nodavirus infection of juvenile white seabass, Atractoscion nobilis, cultured in southern California; first record of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in North America.
Cromileptes altivelis Natural occurrence Viral nervous necrosis in humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis larvae and juveniles in Indonesia.
Cromileptes altivelis Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Cromileptes altivelis Natural occurrence Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease Report April - June 2003 (Asian and Pacific Region).
Cromileptes altivelis Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Dicentrarchus labrax Experimental demonstration The encephalopathy and retinopathy virus of european Sea Bass dicentrarchus labrax: Strategies for its detection and immunisation of juveniles
Dicentrarchus labrax Natural occurrence Viral infection (picorna-like virus) associated with mass mortalities in hatchery-reared sea-bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae and juveniles.
Dicentrarchus labrax Natural occurrence Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) associated with mass mortalities in cage reared sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.).
Dicentrarchus labrax Natural occurrence Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy of Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) farmed in fresh water in Greece.
Dicentrarchus labrax Natural occurrence Nodavirus infections in Israeli mariculture.
Dicentrarchus labrax Natural occurrence Emergence of pathogenic betanodaviruses belonging to the SJNNV genogroup in farmed fish species from the Iberian Peninsula.
Dicentrarchus labrax Natural occurrence Cell culture isolation of piscine neuropathy nodavirus from juvenile sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.
Dicentrarchus labrax Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Dicentrarchus labrax Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1994. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Dicentrarchus labrax Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1995. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Dicentrarchus labrax Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1996. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Dicentrarchus labrax Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Dicentrarchus labrax Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Dicentrarchus labrax Natural occurrence Phylogenetic and antigenic characterization of new fish nodavirus isolates from Europe and Asia.
Epinephelus aeneus Natural occurrence Nodavirus infections in Israeli mariculture.
Epinephelus akaara Natural occurrence Mass mortalities associated with viral nervous necrosis in hatchery-reared groupers in the People's Republic of China.
Epinephelus akaara Natural occurrence A viral disease in hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles of redspotted grouper.
Epinephelus akaara Natural occurrence Mass mortalities associated with viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease in two species of hatchery-reared grouper, epinephelus fuscogutatus and Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel)
Epinephelus akaara Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Epinephelus akaara Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Epinephelus akaara Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Epinephelus akaara Natural occurrence Genetic analysis and pathogenicity of betanodavirus isolated from wild redspotted grouper Epinephalus akaara with clinical signs.
Epinephelus coioides Natural occurrence Mass mortalities associated with viral nervous necrosis in hatchery-reared groupers in the People's Republic of China.
Epinephelus coioides Natural occurrence Nodavirus infection in hatchery-reared orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides: first record of viral nervous necrosis in the Philippines.
Epinephelus coioides Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Epinephelus coioides Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Natural occurrence Mass mortalities associated with viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease in two species of hatchery-reared grouper, epinephelus fuscogutatus and Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel)
Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Epinephelus malabaricus Natural occurrence Picorna-like vius associated with mortality and a spongious encephalopathy in grouper Epinephelus malabaricus.
Epinephelus malabaricus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Epinephelus malabaricus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Epinephelus malabaricus Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Epinephelus malabaricus Natural occurrence Viral nervous necrosis in brownspotted grouper, Epinephelus malabaricus, cultured in Thailland.
Epinephelus marginatus Unknown Betanodavirus infections of teleost fish: a review.
Epinephelus moara Natural occurrence Occurrence of viral nervous necrosis in kelp grouper and tiger puffer.
Epinephelus moara Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Epinephelus moara Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Epinephelus moara Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Epinephelus septemfasciatus Natural occurrence Mass mortality of cultured grouper, Epinephelus septemfasciatus, associated with viral nervous necrosis.
Epinephelus septemfasciatus Natural occurrence Viral diseases of cultured marine fish and shrimp in Korea.
Epinephelus septemfasciatus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Epinephelus septemfasciatus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Epinephelus septemfasciatus Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Epinephelus spp. Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1995. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Epinephelus tauvina Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Epinephelus tauvina Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Epinephelus tauvina Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Epinephelus tauvina Natural occurrence Mass mortality in juvenile greasy grouper, Epinephelus tauvina, associated with vacuolating encephalopathy and retinopathy.
Epinephelus tauvina Unknown Betanodavirus infections of teleost fish: a review.
Gadus morhua Natural occurrence Identification and characterization of a piscine neuropathy and nodavirus from juvenile Atlantic cod from the Atlantic coast of North America.
Gadus morhua Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 2002. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods. Page 85 (4).
Gadus morhua Natural occurrence Nodavirus infection of Atlantic cod, Dover sole, and halibut in the United Kingdom.
Gadus morhua Unknown World Animal Health in 2001. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Experimental demonstration Transmission of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) to yolk-sac larvae of the Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus: occurrence of nodavirus in various organs and a possible route of infection.
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Natural occurrence Mass mortality of larval and juvenile hatchery-reared halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) associated with the presence of virus-like particles in vacuolated lesions in the central nervous system and retina.
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Natural occurrence Vacuolating encephalopathy and retinopathy associated with a nodavirus-like agent: a probable cause of mass mortality of cultured larvall and juvenile Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus.
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Natural occurrence Isolation of nodavirus from Scottish farmed halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus (L.).
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1995. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1996. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Natural occurrence Nodavirus infection of Atlantic cod, Dover sole, and halibut in the United Kingdom.
Lateolabrax japonicus Natural occurrence Histopathological studies on viral nervous necrosis in a new host, Japanese sea bass Lateolabrax japonicus.
Lates calcarifer Natural occurrence Mass mortality associated with a virl-induced vacuolating encephalopathy and retinopathy of larval and juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifer Bloch.
Lates calcarifer Natural occurrence Mass mortalities in hatchery-reared sea bass (Lates calcarifer) larvae associated with the presence in the brain and retina of virus-like particles.
Lates calcarifer Natural occurrence Nodavirus infection causes mortalities in hatchery produced larvae of Lates calcarifer: first report from India.
Lates calcarifer Natural occurrence Nodavirus infections in Israeli mariculture.
Lates calcarifer Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Lates calcarifer Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1994. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Lates calcarifer Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Lates calcarifer Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 2003. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and methods for disease control and prevention. Page 64 (2).
Lates calcarifer Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 2004. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods. Page 59 (2).
Lates calcarifer Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Lates calcarifer Natural occurrence Nodaviruses as pathogens in larval and juvenile marine fish.
Lates calcarifer Natural occurrence Mass mortalities associated with viral nervous necrosis in hatchery-reared sea bass Lates calcarifer in the Philippines.
Lates calcarifer Unknown Betanodavirus infections of teleost fish: a review.
Latris lineata Unknown Betanodavirus infections of teleost fish: a review.
Liza auratus Natural occurrence Mortality of wild golden grey mullet (Liza auratus)in Iranian waters of the Caspian Sea, associated with viral necrosis-like agent
Lutjanus erythropterus Natural occurrence Genetic and antigenic analysis of betanodaviruses isolated from aquatic organisms in Taiwan.
Macquaria novemaculeata Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 2004. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods. Page 59 (2).
Melanogrammus aeglefinus Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 2002. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods. Page 85 (4).
Melanogrammus aeglefinus Natural occurrence First isolation of a piscine nodavirus from wild caught Haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus G. (Gadidae).
Micropterus salmoides Natural occurrence Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy outbreak in freshwater fish farmed in Italy.
Mugil cephalus Natural occurrence Nodavirus infections in Israeli mariculture.
Oplegnathus fasciatus Natural occurrence Viral nervous necrosis in hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles of Japanese parrotfish, Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck and Sclegel).
Oplegnathus fasciatus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Oplegnathus fasciatus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Oplegnathus fasciatus Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Oxyeleotris lineolatus Unknown Betanodavirus infections of teleost fish: a review.
Paralichthys olivaceus Natural occurrence Occurrence of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in hatchery-reared juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.
Paralichthys olivaceus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Paralichthys olivaceus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Paralichthys olivaceus Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Plectropomus maculatus Unknown Nodavirus associated with pathological changes in adult spotted coralgroupers (Plectropomus maculatus) in Thailand with viral nervous necrosis
Pseudocaranx dentex Natural occurrence Epizootiology of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in striped jack.
Pseudocaranx dentex Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Pseudocaranx dentex Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1994. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Pseudocaranx dentex Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Pseudocaranx dentex Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Pseudopleuronectes americanus Natural occurrence First report of piscine nodavirus infecting wild winter flounder Pleuronectes americanus in Passamaquoddy Bay, New Brunswick, Canada.
Rachycentron canadum Natural occurrence Genetic and antigenic analysis of betanodaviruses isolated from aquatic organisms in Taiwan.
Rachycentron canadum Natural occurrence Investigation of host range of fish nodavirus in Taiwan.
Salaria fluviatilis (Asso) Unknown Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy outbreak in restocking facilities of the endangered freshwater species, Salaria fluviatilis (Asso).
Sciaenops ocellatus Natural occurrence A fish nodavirus associated with mass mortality in hatchery-reared red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.
Sciaenops ocellatus Natural occurrence Nodavirus infections in Israeli mariculture.
Scophthalmus maximus (Psetta maxima) Natural occurrence Encephalomyelitis among turbot associated with a picorn-like agent.
Scophthalmus maximus (Psetta maxima) Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Scophthalmus maximus (Psetta maxima) Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Scophthalmus maximus (Psetta maxima) Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Seriola dumerili Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Seriola dumerili Unknown Viral and bacterial diseases in larval and juvenile marine fish and shellfish: a review.
Silurus asotus Natural occurrence Genetic and antigenic analysis of betanodaviruses isolated from aquatic organisms in Taiwan.
Solea senegalensis Natural occurrence Emergence of pathogenic betanodaviruses belonging to the SJNNV genogroup in farmed fish species from the Iberian Peninsula.
Solea solea Natural occurrence Nodavirus infection of Atlantic cod, Dover sole, and halibut in the United Kingdom.
Sparus aurata Carrier not affected Sea bream Sparus aurata, an asymptomatic contagious fish host for nodavirus
Sparus aurata Experimental demonstration Experimental transmission of encephalopathy and retinopathy induced by nodavirus to sea bream, Sparus aurata L., using different infection models.
Sparus aurata Natural occurrence First incidence of clinical signs of nodavirus infection in sea bream, Sparus auratus L.
Sparus aurata Natural occurrence Emergence of pathogenic betanodaviruses belonging to the SJNNV genogroup in farmed fish species from the Iberian Peninsula.
Sparus aurata Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1996. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Stephanolepis cirrhifer Natural occurrence Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in hatchery-reared juvenile thread-sail filefish (Stephanolepis cirrhifer).
Takifugu (Fugu) rubripes Natural occurrence Occurrence of viral nervous necrosis in kelp grouper and tiger puffer.
Takifugu (Fugu) rubripes Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Takifugu (Fugu) rubripes Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Takifugu (Fugu) rubripes Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Trachinotus blochii Natural occurrence Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease Report April - June 2003 (Asian and Pacific Region).
Trachinotus blochii Natural occurrence Betanodavirus infection in golden pompano, Trachinotus blochii, fingerlings cultured in deep-sea cage culture facility in Langkawi, Malaysia.
Trachinotus falcatus Natural occurrence Genetic and antigenic analysis of betanodaviruses isolated from aquatic organisms in Taiwan.
Trachinotus falcatus Natural occurrence Investigation of host range of fish nodavirus in Taiwan.
Umbrina cirrosa Natural occurrence Casi di Encefaloretinopatia in ombrina (Umbrina cirrosa), con descrizione della sintomatologia clinica e del quadro anatomoistopatologico.
Verasper moseri Natural occurrence Occurrence of viral nervous necrosis in hatchery-reared barfin flounder.
Verasper moseri Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Verasper moseri Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Verasper moseri Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).