Disease data

Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis

Previously listed diseases
Fish
Viral disease; Birnavirus; Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus

Summary from the online OIE Diagnostic Manual

Infectious pancreatic necrosis ( IPN ) is a highly contagious viral disease of young fish of salmonid species held under intensive rearing conditions ( 14, 32, 33 ) . The disease most characteristically occurs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), brown trout (Salmo trutta), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and several Pacific salmon species (Oncorhynchus spp. ) . Susceptibility generally decreases with age, with resistance to clinical disease in salmonid fish usually being reached at about 1500 degree-days ( value obtained by multiplying the age in days by the average temperature in degrees centigrade during the lifespan )( 11 ) , except for Atlantic salmon smolts, which can be affected after transfer from fresh water to seawater ( 29 ) . The first sign of an outbreak in salmonid fry is frequently a sudden and usually progressive increase in daily mortality, particularly in the faster growing individuals. Clinical signs include darkening pigmentation, a pronounced distended abdomen and a corkscrewing/spiral swimming motion. Cumulative mortalities may vary from less than 10% to more than 90% depending on the combination of several factors, such as virus strain ( 17 ) and quantity ( 24 ) , host and environment ( 10 ) . For further details see reviews by Hill ( 14 ) , Reno ( 27 ) and Wolf ( 32 ) .

The disease is transmitted both horizontally via the water route and vertically via the egg ( 3, 4, 12 ) . Surface disinfection of eggs is not entirely effective in preventing vertical transmission ( 6 ) .

The disease has a wide geographical distribution, occurring in most major salmonid-farming countries of North and South America, Europe and Asia. Oceania is free of the disease.

IPN virus ( IPNV ) , or viruses showing serological relatedness to IPNV, have been reported to cause diseases in some farmed marine fish species, such as yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata)( 21 ) , turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)( 7, 20, 22 ) , dab (Limanda limanda) (25), halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) (20, 28) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Subclinical covert infections have been detected in a wide range of estuarine and freshwater fish species, such as loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus)( 8 ) , pike (Esox lucius)( 2 ) and numerous other species in the families Anguillidae, Atherinidae, Bothidae, Carangidae, Cotostomidae, Cichlidae, Clupeidae, Cobitidae, Coregonidae, Cyprinidae, Esocidae, Moronidae, Paralichthydae, Percidae, Poecilidae, Sciaenidae, Soleidae and Thymallidae (27) .

The causative agent, IPNV, is a bi-segmented double-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Birnaviridae ( see review by Dobos & Roberts [ 10 ]) . Isolates display wide antigenic diversity ( 11, 16, 19, 23 ) and fall into two serogroups that do not cross-react in serum neutralisation tests ( 3, 25, 31 ) , with the majority of strains belonging to serogroup A, which comprises at least nine serotypes ( 16 ) . Isolates also show marked differences in degrees of virulence ( 14, 15, 17 ) .

Control methods currently rely on the implementation of control policies and of hygiene practices in salmonid husbandry, through the avoidance of the introduction of fertilised eggs originating from IPNV-carrier broodstock, and the use of a protected water supply ( e.g. spring or borehole pond ) where the ingress of fish, particularly possible virus carriers, is prevented. In outbreaks, a reduction in the population density ( 'thinning out' ) may help to reduce the overall mortality. No treatment or entirely effective vaccine is available at present.


Countries affected

Country Year Status View Records
Canada 2007 Serological evidence and/or isolation of causative agent, no clinical disease View Records
Chile 2007 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Czech Republic 2007 Year of last reported occurrence View Records
Denmark 2007 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Finland 2007 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Germany 2007 Reported present or known to be present View Records
India 2000 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Iran 2010 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Ireland 2007 Reported present in specific zones View Records
Japan 2007 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Korea, Republic of 2008 Suspected but not confirmed View Records
Netherlands 2007 Reported present or known to be present View Records
New Zealand 2007 Serological evidence and/or isolation of causative agent, no clinical disease View Records
Norway 2007 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Portugal 2007 Year of last reported occurrence View Records
Slovakia 2006 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Slovenia 2007 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Spain 2007 Occurrence limited to certain zones View Records
Sri Lanka 2007 Suspected but not confirmed View Records
Sweden 2007 Year of last reported occurrence View Records
Switzerland 2007 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Thailand 2004 Year of last reported occurrence View Records
Turkey 2007 Serological evidence and/or isolation of causative agent, no clinical disease View Records
United Kingdom 2006 Reported present or known to be present View Records
United States of America 2007 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Venezuela 2007 Suspected but not confirmed View Records

Species affected

Species Disease occurence Abstract
Anguilla anguilla Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1996. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Anguillidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Anguillidae spp. Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1994. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Atherinidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Bothidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Carangidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Cichlidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Clupeidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Cobitidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Coregonidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Cotostomidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Cyprinidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Esocidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Esox lucius Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Misgurnus anguillicaudatus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Moronidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Oncorhynchus kisutch Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1994. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Oncorhynchus mykiss Carrier not affected World Animal Health in 1994. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1996. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Oncorhynchus spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Oncorhynchus spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Oncorhynchus spp. Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Paralichthydae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Paralichthys dentatus Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1997. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Percidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Salmo salar Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Salmo salar Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1994. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Salmo salar Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1996. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Salmo salar Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1997. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Salmo salar Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Salmo salar Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Salmo trutta Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Salmo trutta Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Salmo trutta Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Salvelinus fontinalis Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Salvelinus fontinalis Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Salvelinus fontinalis Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Sciaenidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Scophthalmus maximus (Psetta maxima) Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Seriola quinqueradiata Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Soleidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).

Countries affected

Country Year Status View Records
Canada 1988 See Publication View Records
Chile 1988 See Publication View Records
Denmark 1988 See Publication View Records
Finland 2017 Reported present or known to be present View Records
France 1988 See Publication View Records
Germany 1988 See Publication View Records
Greece 2011 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Iran 2013 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Italy 1988 See Publication View Records
Japan 1992 See Publication View Records
Kenya 2018 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Korea, Republic of 2011 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Mexico 2016 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Norway 1988 See Publication View Records
Spain 1993 Reported positive year View Records
Sweden 1988 See Publication View Records
Switzerland 2003 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Taiwan 1988 See Publication View Records
Turkey 2017 Reported present or known to be present View Records
U.S.S.R. 1988 See Publication View Records
United Kingdom 2018 Reported present or known to be present View Records
United States of America 1988 See Publication View Records
Yugoslavia 1988 See Publication View Records

Species affected

Species Disease occurence Abstract
Abramis brama Carrier not affected Isolation of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) virus from non-salmonid fish.
Anarhichas minor Experimental demonstration Susceptibility of spotted wolffish Anarhichas minor to experimental infection with nodavirus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus.
Anguilla anguilla Carrier not affected Isolation and characterization attempts of three viruses from European eel, Anguilla anguilla: preliminary results.
Anguilla anguilla Carrier not affected Isolation of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus from eels, Anguilla anguilla L., in the United Kingdom.
Anguilla anguilla Natural occurrence The occurrence of virus infections in elvers and eels (Anguilla anguilla) in Europe with particular reference to VHSV and IHNV
Anguilla anguilla Unknown First confirmation of Herpes Virus Anguillae (HVA) and infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) virus infecting European eels Anguilla anguilla farmed in Greece.
Anguilla japonica Natural occurrence A new viral epizootic of Anguilla japonica Temmink and Schlegel.
Anguilla japonica Unknown Assessment of the virulence of fish and molluscan isolates of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus for salmonid fish by challenge of brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchell).
Anguillidae spp. Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Ardea cinerea Vector Transmission of some fish pathogenic viruses by the heron, Ardea cinerea .
Astacus astacus Carrier not affected Freshwater crayfish Astacus astacus-a vector for infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV).
Atherinidae spp. Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Barbus graellsi Carrier not affected Epidemiological risk factors affecting the presentation of viral agents in freshwater aquaculture in north-eastern Spain.
Bothidae spp. Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Brachydanio rerio Natural occurrence Isolation of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus from zebra danio, Brachydanio rerio.
Brevoortia tyrannus Natural occurrence A viral aetiology for the annual spring epizootics of Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe) in Chesapeake Bay.
Brevoortia tyrannus Unknown Assessment of the virulence of fish and molluscan isolates of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus for salmonid fish by challenge of brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchell).
Carangidae spp. Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Carassius auratus Carrier not affected Isolation of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) virus from non-salmonid fish.
Carcinus maenas Carrier not affected The relevance of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in farmed Norwegian turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).
Catostomus commersoni Carrier not affected Isolation of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus from white suckers.
Channa striatus Natural occurrence Isolation of a birnavirus belonging to Sp serotype, from south east Asia fishes.
Chondrostoma toxostoma Natural occurrence Epidemiological risk factors affecting the presentation of viral agents in freshwater aquaculture in north-eastern Spain.
Cichlidae spp. Experimental demonstration Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Clupeidae spp. Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Cobitidae spp. Experimental demonstration Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Coregonidae spp. Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Cotostomidae spp. Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Cyprinidae spp. Experimental demonstration Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Cyprinus carpio Carrier not affected Epidemiological risk factors affecting the presentation of viral agents in freshwater aquaculture in north-eastern Spain.
Esocidae spp. Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Esox lucius Experimental demonstration Susceptibility of pike (Esox lucius) to different salmonid viruses (IPN, VHS, IHN) and to the perch rhabdovirus.
Esox lucius Unknown Isolation and characterization of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus from pike (Esox lucius).
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Experimental demonstration Mortality of halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) challenged with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV).
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, serotype N1, isolated from Norwegian halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and scallops (Pecten maximus).
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Natural occurrence Clinical infectious pancreatic necrosis virus infection in farmed halibut in the United Kingdom.
Lampetra fluviatilis Carrier not affected The distribution and prevalence of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in wild fish in Loch Awe.
Lota lota Experimental demonstration Characterization of susceptibility and carrier status of burbot, Lota lota (L.), to IHNV, IPNV, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Aeromonas salmonicida and Renibacterium salmoninarum.
Merlucciidae Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus isolated from hake, Merluccius merlucius, from Scotland.
Misgurnus anguillicaudatus Natural occurrence The general characteristics of a birnavirus isolated from cultured loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) in Taiwan.
Morone saxatilis Carrier not affected Transmission of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus from carrier striped bass to brook trout.
Morone saxatilis Natural occurrence Isolation of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus from an epizootic occurring in cultured striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum).
Morone saxatilis Unknown Assessment of the virulence of fish and molluscan isolates of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus for salmonid fish by challenge of brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchell).
Moronidae spp. Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Oncorhynchus keta Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Oncorhynchus keta Unknown Assessment of the virulence of fish and molluscan isolates of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus for salmonid fish by challenge of brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchell).
Oncorhynchus kisutch Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Oncorhynchus kisutch Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus isolated from coho salmon fingerlings.
Oncorhynchus masou Natural occurrence Investigations on virus infections of freshwater fish in Bavaria.
Oncorhynchus mykiss Experimental demonstration Isolation and identification of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence First isolation and identification of the infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) virus from rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fingerlings farmed in Greece.
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence Studies on viral disease of Japanese fishes - I. Infectious pancreatic necrosis of rainbow trout. First isolation from epizootic in Japan.
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence Distribution of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) based on surveillance programes in freshwater trout farms of Mexico
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus isolated from farmed rainbow trout and tilapia in Kenya is identical to European isolates.
Oncorhynchus mykiss Unknown Case report: Viral infectious pancreatic necrosis in farmed rainbow trout from Mexico.
Oncorhynchus nerka Experimental demonstration Studies on viral diseases of Japanese fishes. IV. Infectious pancreatic necrosis of rainbow trout: susceptibiity of freshwater salmons of the genus Oncorhynchus.
Oncorhynchus nerka Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Oncorhynchus rhodurus Experimental demonstration Studies on viral diseases of Japanese fishes. IV. Infectious pancreatic necrosis of rainbow trout: susceptibiity of freshwater salmons of the genus Oncorhynchus.
Oncorhynchus rhodurus Natural occurrence Studies on viral diseases of Japanese fishes. V. Infectious pancreatic necrosis of Amago trout.
Oncorhynchus rhodurus Natural occurrence On the viral diseases of salmonid fish in Okayama Prefecture (IV). Identification of infectious heamatopoietic necrosis by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique.
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Oreochromis (Tilapia) spp. Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus isolated from farmed rainbow trout and tilapia in Kenya is identical to European isolates.
Paralichthydae spp. Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus: isolation from southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, during an epizootic.
Paralichthys lethostigma Unknown Assessment of the virulence of fish and molluscan isolates of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus for salmonid fish by challenge of brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchell).
Pecten maximus Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, serotype N1, isolated from Norwegian halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and scallops (Pecten maximus).
Perca fluviatilis Carrier not affected The distribution and prevalence of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in wild fish in Loch Awe.
Petromyzontidae Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Phoxinus phoxinus Carrier not affected The distribution and prevalence of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in wild fish in Loch Awe.
Pollachius virens Carrier not affected The relevance of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in farmed Norwegian turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).
Salmo (Hucho) hucho Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Salmo clarki Experimental demonstration Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Salmo clarki Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Salmo clarki Natural occurrence A new geographic and host record for infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Salmo salar Experimental demonstration Pathogenesis of infectious pancreatic necrosis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).
Salmo salar Natural occurrence Pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) postsmolts infected with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus(IPNV).
Salmo salar Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) virus Sp serotype in farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., post-smolts associated with mortality and clinical disease.
Salmo salar Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in young salmonids of the Canadian Maritime Provinces.
Salmo trutta Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in young salmonids of the Canadian Maritime Provinces.
Salmo trutta Natural occurrence Investigations on virus infections of freshwater fish in Bavaria.
Salmonids Experimental demonstration Molecular tracing confirms that infection with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus follows the smolt from hatchery to grow-out farm.
Salmonids Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Salvelinus alpinus Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Salvelinus fontinalis Experimental demonstration The IPNV carrier state and demonstration of vertical transmission in experimentally infected brook trout.
Salvelinus fontinalis Experimental demonstration Infectious nature of pancreatic necrosis.
Salvelinus fontinalis Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis in brook trout
Salvelinus fontinalis Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Salvelinus fontinalis Natural occurrence Acute catarrhal enteritis of salmonid fingerlings.
Salvelinus fontinalis x Salvelinus namaycush Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Salvelinus namaycush Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Salvelinus namaycush Natural occurrence Prevalence and pathogenicity of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) associated with feral lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum).
Sciaenidae spp. Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Scophthalmus maximus (Psetta maxima) Natural occurrence Isolation of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, Ab serotype, from an epizootic in farmed turbot, Scophthalmus maximus.
Scophthalmus maximus (Psetta maxima) Natural occurrence The relevance of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in farmed Norwegian turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).
Scophthalmus maximus (Psetta maxima) Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, serotype N1, isolated from Norwegian halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and scallops (Pecten maximus).
Scophthalmus maximus (Psetta maxima) Natural occurrence Characterization of a birnavirus isolated from diseased turbot cultured in Spain.
Seriola quinqueradiata Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Soleidae spp. Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Symphysodon discus Carrier not affected Isolation of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) virus from non-salmonid fish.
Thymallus thymallus Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.

Countries affected

Country Year Status View Records
Canada 2007 Serological evidence and/or isolation of causative agent, no clinical disease View Records
Chile 2007 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Czech Republic 2007 Year of last reported occurrence View Records
Denmark 2007 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Finland 2017 Reported present or known to be present View Records
France 1988 See Publication View Records
Germany 2007 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Greece 2011 Reported present or known to be present View Records
India 2000 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Iran 2013 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Ireland 2007 Reported present in specific zones View Records
Italy 1988 See Publication View Records
Japan 2007 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Kenya 2018 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Korea, Republic of 2011 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Mexico 2016 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Netherlands 2007 Reported present or known to be present View Records
New Zealand 2007 Serological evidence and/or isolation of causative agent, no clinical disease View Records
Norway 2007 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Portugal 2007 Year of last reported occurrence View Records
Slovakia 2006 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Slovenia 2007 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Spain 2007 Occurrence limited to certain zones View Records
Sri Lanka 2007 Suspected but not confirmed View Records
Sweden 2007 Year of last reported occurrence View Records
Switzerland 2007 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Taiwan 1988 See Publication View Records
Thailand 2004 Year of last reported occurrence View Records
Turkey 2017 Reported present or known to be present View Records
U.S.S.R. 1988 See Publication View Records
United Kingdom 2018 Reported present or known to be present View Records
United States of America 2007 Reported present or known to be present View Records
Venezuela 2007 Suspected but not confirmed View Records
Yugoslavia 1988 See Publication View Records

Species affected

Species Disease occurence Abstract
Abramis brama Carrier not affected Isolation of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) virus from non-salmonid fish.
Anarhichas minor Experimental demonstration Susceptibility of spotted wolffish Anarhichas minor to experimental infection with nodavirus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus.
Anguilla anguilla Carrier not affected Isolation and characterization attempts of three viruses from European eel, Anguilla anguilla: preliminary results.
Anguilla anguilla Carrier not affected Isolation of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus from eels, Anguilla anguilla L., in the United Kingdom.
Anguilla anguilla Natural occurrence The occurrence of virus infections in elvers and eels (Anguilla anguilla) in Europe with particular reference to VHSV and IHNV
Anguilla anguilla Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1996. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Anguilla anguilla Unknown First confirmation of Herpes Virus Anguillae (HVA) and infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) virus infecting European eels Anguilla anguilla farmed in Greece.
Anguilla japonica Natural occurrence A new viral epizootic of Anguilla japonica Temmink and Schlegel.
Anguilla japonica Unknown Assessment of the virulence of fish and molluscan isolates of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus for salmonid fish by challenge of brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchell).
Anguillidae spp. Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Anguillidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Anguillidae spp. Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1994. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Ardea cinerea Vector Transmission of some fish pathogenic viruses by the heron, Ardea cinerea .
Astacus astacus Carrier not affected Freshwater crayfish Astacus astacus-a vector for infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV).
Atherinidae spp. Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Atherinidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Barbus graellsi Carrier not affected Epidemiological risk factors affecting the presentation of viral agents in freshwater aquaculture in north-eastern Spain.
Bothidae spp. Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Bothidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Brachydanio rerio Natural occurrence Isolation of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus from zebra danio, Brachydanio rerio.
Brevoortia tyrannus Natural occurrence A viral aetiology for the annual spring epizootics of Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe) in Chesapeake Bay.
Brevoortia tyrannus Unknown Assessment of the virulence of fish and molluscan isolates of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus for salmonid fish by challenge of brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchell).
Carangidae spp. Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Carangidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Carassius auratus Carrier not affected Isolation of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) virus from non-salmonid fish.
Carcinus maenas Carrier not affected The relevance of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in farmed Norwegian turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).
Catostomus commersoni Carrier not affected Isolation of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus from white suckers.
Channa striatus Natural occurrence Isolation of a birnavirus belonging to Sp serotype, from south east Asia fishes.
Chondrostoma toxostoma Natural occurrence Epidemiological risk factors affecting the presentation of viral agents in freshwater aquaculture in north-eastern Spain.
Cichlidae spp. Experimental demonstration Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Cichlidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Clupeidae spp. Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Clupeidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Cobitidae spp. Experimental demonstration Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Cobitidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Coregonidae spp. Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Coregonidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Cotostomidae spp. Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Cotostomidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Cyprinidae spp. Experimental demonstration Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Cyprinidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Cyprinus carpio Carrier not affected Epidemiological risk factors affecting the presentation of viral agents in freshwater aquaculture in north-eastern Spain.
Esocidae spp. Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Esocidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Esox lucius Experimental demonstration Susceptibility of pike (Esox lucius) to different salmonid viruses (IPN, VHS, IHN) and to the perch rhabdovirus.
Esox lucius Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Esox lucius Unknown Isolation and characterization of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus from pike (Esox lucius).
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Experimental demonstration Mortality of halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) challenged with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV).
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, serotype N1, isolated from Norwegian halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and scallops (Pecten maximus).
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Hippoglossus hippoglossus Natural occurrence Clinical infectious pancreatic necrosis virus infection in farmed halibut in the United Kingdom.
Lampetra fluviatilis Carrier not affected The distribution and prevalence of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in wild fish in Loch Awe.
Lota lota Experimental demonstration Characterization of susceptibility and carrier status of burbot, Lota lota (L.), to IHNV, IPNV, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Aeromonas salmonicida and Renibacterium salmoninarum.
Merlucciidae Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus isolated from hake, Merluccius merlucius, from Scotland.
Misgurnus anguillicaudatus Natural occurrence The general characteristics of a birnavirus isolated from cultured loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) in Taiwan.
Misgurnus anguillicaudatus Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Morone saxatilis Carrier not affected Transmission of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus from carrier striped bass to brook trout.
Morone saxatilis Natural occurrence Isolation of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus from an epizootic occurring in cultured striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum).
Morone saxatilis Unknown Assessment of the virulence of fish and molluscan isolates of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus for salmonid fish by challenge of brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchell).
Moronidae spp. Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Moronidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Oncorhynchus keta Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Oncorhynchus keta Unknown Assessment of the virulence of fish and molluscan isolates of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus for salmonid fish by challenge of brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchell).
Oncorhynchus kisutch Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Oncorhynchus kisutch Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1994. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Oncorhynchus kisutch Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus isolated from coho salmon fingerlings.
Oncorhynchus masou Natural occurrence Investigations on virus infections of freshwater fish in Bavaria.
Oncorhynchus mykiss Carrier not affected World Animal Health in 1994. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Oncorhynchus mykiss Experimental demonstration Isolation and identification of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence First isolation and identification of the infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) virus from rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fingerlings farmed in Greece.
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence Studies on viral disease of Japanese fishes - I. Infectious pancreatic necrosis of rainbow trout. First isolation from epizootic in Japan.
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1996. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence Distribution of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) based on surveillance programes in freshwater trout farms of Mexico
Oncorhynchus mykiss Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus isolated from farmed rainbow trout and tilapia in Kenya is identical to European isolates.
Oncorhynchus mykiss Unknown Case report: Viral infectious pancreatic necrosis in farmed rainbow trout from Mexico.
Oncorhynchus nerka Experimental demonstration Studies on viral diseases of Japanese fishes. IV. Infectious pancreatic necrosis of rainbow trout: susceptibiity of freshwater salmons of the genus Oncorhynchus.
Oncorhynchus nerka Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Oncorhynchus rhodurus Experimental demonstration Studies on viral diseases of Japanese fishes. IV. Infectious pancreatic necrosis of rainbow trout: susceptibiity of freshwater salmons of the genus Oncorhynchus.
Oncorhynchus rhodurus Natural occurrence Studies on viral diseases of Japanese fishes. V. Infectious pancreatic necrosis of Amago trout.
Oncorhynchus rhodurus Natural occurrence On the viral diseases of salmonid fish in Okayama Prefecture (IV). Identification of infectious heamatopoietic necrosis by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique.
Oncorhynchus spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Oncorhynchus spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Oncorhynchus spp. Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Oreochromis (Tilapia) spp. Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus isolated from farmed rainbow trout and tilapia in Kenya is identical to European isolates.
Paralichthydae spp. Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus: isolation from southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, during an epizootic.
Paralichthydae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Paralichthys dentatus Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1997. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Paralichthys lethostigma Unknown Assessment of the virulence of fish and molluscan isolates of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus for salmonid fish by challenge of brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchell).
Pecten maximus Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, serotype N1, isolated from Norwegian halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and scallops (Pecten maximus).
Perca fluviatilis Carrier not affected The distribution and prevalence of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in wild fish in Loch Awe.
Percidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Petromyzontidae Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Phoxinus phoxinus Carrier not affected The distribution and prevalence of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in wild fish in Loch Awe.
Pollachius virens Carrier not affected The relevance of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in farmed Norwegian turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).
Salmo (Hucho) hucho Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Salmo clarki Experimental demonstration Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Salmo clarki Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Salmo clarki Natural occurrence A new geographic and host record for infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Salmo salar Experimental demonstration Pathogenesis of infectious pancreatic necrosis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).
Salmo salar Natural occurrence Pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) postsmolts infected with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus(IPNV).
Salmo salar Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) virus Sp serotype in farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., post-smolts associated with mortality and clinical disease.
Salmo salar Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in young salmonids of the Canadian Maritime Provinces.
Salmo salar Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Salmo salar Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1994. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Salmo salar Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1996. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Salmo salar Natural occurrence World Animal Health in 1997. Part 1. Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods.
Salmo salar Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Salmo salar Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Salmo trutta Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in young salmonids of the Canadian Maritime Provinces.
Salmo trutta Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Salmo trutta Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Salmo trutta Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Salmo trutta Natural occurrence Investigations on virus infections of freshwater fish in Bavaria.
Salmonids Experimental demonstration Molecular tracing confirms that infection with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus follows the smolt from hatchery to grow-out farm.
Salmonids Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Salvelinus alpinus Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Salvelinus fontinalis Experimental demonstration The IPNV carrier state and demonstration of vertical transmission in experimentally infected brook trout.
Salvelinus fontinalis Experimental demonstration Infectious nature of pancreatic necrosis.
Salvelinus fontinalis Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis in brook trout
Salvelinus fontinalis Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Salvelinus fontinalis Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Salvelinus fontinalis Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases 2003 (4th edition).
Salvelinus fontinalis Natural occurrence OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (5th edition, 2006).
Salvelinus fontinalis Natural occurrence Acute catarrhal enteritis of salmonid fingerlings.
Salvelinus fontinalis x Salvelinus namaycush Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Salvelinus namaycush Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Salvelinus namaycush Natural occurrence Prevalence and pathogenicity of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) associated with feral lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum).
Sciaenidae spp. Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Sciaenidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Scophthalmus maximus (Psetta maxima) Natural occurrence Isolation of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, Ab serotype, from an epizootic in farmed turbot, Scophthalmus maximus.
Scophthalmus maximus (Psetta maxima) Natural occurrence The relevance of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in farmed Norwegian turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).
Scophthalmus maximus (Psetta maxima) Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, serotype N1, isolated from Norwegian halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and scallops (Pecten maximus).
Scophthalmus maximus (Psetta maxima) Natural occurrence Characterization of a birnavirus isolated from diseased turbot cultured in Spain.
Scophthalmus maximus (Psetta maxima) Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Seriola quinqueradiata Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Seriola quinqueradiata Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Soleidae spp. Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.
Soleidae spp. Natural occurrence OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases (3rd edition).
Symphysodon discus Carrier not affected Isolation of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) virus from non-salmonid fish.
Thymallus thymallus Natural occurrence Infectious pancreatic necrosis.